ABO Blood Type: All People Want to Know

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Almost everyone has heard of the “blood type”. However, what is a blood type anyway? Why is blood type so important in medicine? This article aims to explain the blood types and their roles in our health.

    

Let us understand red blood cell firstly

    

Red blood cells are cells in the blood circulating in blood vessels. The main function of red blood cells is to deliver oxygen to different organs. When the blood enters the lung, the air inhaled will diffuse into the blood, and the red blood cells as a “vehicle” will carry oxygen to various organs.

     

There are many proteins on the surface of cells. Of these proteins, there is a very important protein on the surface of red blood cells to denote the type of red blood cell.

         

  

There are 4 variants of this protein in all human beings on the planet, named A, B, AB, and O. “AB” means the presence of both A and B, whereas O means no A nor B. Interestingly, this protein has been found as early as 1901.

        

To summarize, there are 4 variants of a single important protein on the surface of red blood cells. For an individual, he/she can only have one type: A, B, AB, or O.

   

Different genes give rise to different variants of the protein

    

Why are there 4 variants of a single protein on the surface of red blood cells? It is determined by human genes. There are 3 kinds of genes that can produce the protein. The genes are named A, B, and O.

    

   

If your gene is AA, your blood type is A.

If your gene is BB, your blood type is B.

If your gene is OO, your blood type is O.

If your gene is AB, your blood type is AB.

If your gene is AO, your blood type is A.

If your gene is BO, your blood type is O.

      

The gene O does not determine the blood type. See the summary in the following table:

  

       

Blood types of a newborn baby

    

Let us see an example:

     

The father’s blood type is A. The mother’s blood type is B. What is their kid’s blood type?

   

    

Firstly, let us deduce the possible genes of the father and the mother. From the table above, we can see that if the father’s blood type is A, his gene may be AA or AO; if the mother’s blood type is B, her gene may be BB or BO.

     

Let us further assume that the father’s gene is AA and the mother’s gene is BB. During fertilization, both the father and mother will pass one copy of the gene to the offspring. The father will pass gene A and the mother will pass gene B, so their baby will have a gene of AB, which means that the baby’s blood type is AB.

     

If the father’s gene is AA and the mother’s gene is BO, the father will pass gene A, and the mother will pass the gene B or O. Thus, their baby will end up with a gene of AB or AO, which means that the baby’s blood type may be AB or A. The following table summarizes the blood type of the parents and possible blood type of their baby.

      

       

Blood transfusion

      

People with the blood type of AB is called the universal blood recipient, meaning that they can receive blood from those with A, B, AB, or O.

     

  

    

People with the blood type of O is called the universal blood donor, meaning that they can donate blood to those with A, B, AB, or O.

   

The following table lists the blood a person can receive or donate to others.

   

 

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1 Answer

These messages are for mutual support and information sharing only. Always consult your doctor before trying anything you read here.
Mom is a+ and dad was twin ab
So you are A, B, or AB.
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