Last Friday I was with my cousin who had just finished a dialysis treatment and his eyes were bright yellow.

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I am a black male

2 Answers

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Well, I guess your cousin needs a blood test to measure a parameter called bilirubin. It it is significantly elevated, then it is medically called jaundice. It is a condition that results in the yellowing of the skin, the whites of the eyes, and the inside of the mouth. This condition is caused by high levels of bilirubin. Bilirubin is a yellow-colored by-product of the bodys metabolism of hemoglobin, the iron-containing constituent of red blood cells. The substance is excreted in bile and urine and is responsible for the brown pigmentation in bruises and feces.

For what disease did your cousin get the dialysis treatment? Is it because of the end-stage renal disease? In general, dialysis does not cause the yellow eye. The common causes include:

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

The white part of your eye, known as the sclera, is covered by a thin, clear tissue called the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva also lines the inside of your eyelid, housing a meshwork of thin blood vessels. These blood vessels can easily burst or break.

When they break, blood leaks out and settles between the conjunctiva and the sclera. If the leak is small, a part of your eye may look a bit discolored, sometimes yellow or a little red. However, if the leak is large enough, the entire white part of your eye may appear bright red.3

A subconjunctival hemorrhage often appears as a bright red pool of blood in your eye. The condition usually causes no pain or vision changes, but occasionally causes minor itching of the eye. A scratchy sensation may sometimes be felt upon blinking.

Causes

A subconjunctival hemorrhage, or eye bleed, can be caused by the following:

  • Trauma
  • Hard coughing
  • Hard sneezing
  • Vomiting
  • Heavy lifting
  • Forceful hand rubbing of the eye
  • Constipation
  • Various eye infections3

Occasionally, a subconjunctival hemorrhage can be a warning sign for diabetes, hypertension, bleeding or blood disorders, leukemia, or sickle cell disease.3 It is important to have your optometrist or ophthalmologist examine the hemorrhage to identify a cause and rule out other possible health disorders.

Treatment

Artificial tears may be applied to decrease any feelings of scratchiness.4 Most cases of subconjunctival hemorrhage will disappear on their own, without treatment.

Visible blood in your eye due to subconjunctival hemorrhage will be slowly reabsorbed by your body. Most hemorrhages resolve within about seven days without treatment. A large subconjunctival hemorrhage can take up to two to three weeks to go away.

The redness may turn to a yellow-orange color, pink, and then white again.3 Your eye will not be stained permanently by the blood.

 When to Be Concerned About a Bleeding Eye

Hyperbilirubinemia

Hyperbilirubinemia refers to increased levels of bilirubin. Bilirubin is produced when the liver breaks down old red blood cells. Bilirubin is concentrated and secreted in the bile, which is released by the gallbladder into the small intestine when bile is needed to break down fats that are being digested.5

Bilirubin is removed from the body through the stool (feces) and gives stool its normal brown color. When an abnormally high number of red blood cells is broken down, bilirubin can build up quickly in the body. Liver disease can also cause bilirubin levels to be abnormally high.

Too much bilirubin is one cause of jaundice. Doctors usually order several types of liver function tests to rule out liver problems.5  Treatment will depend on the cause of elevated bilirubin levels. Once the cause is taken care of, yellowing of the eyes and skin often disappears.

 The Danger of Too-High Bilirubin

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is an infection caused by bacteria of the Leptospira genus. People with this infection often develop significant yellowing of the eyes. This infection shows up more in warmer climates and places where a person has exposure to water that has been contaminated by animal urine.

People with leptospirosis develop a cough, sore throat, headache, muscle and stomach pain, and swollen lymph nodes. They also develop an enlarged spleen or liver.6 Antibiotic treatment usually causes the infection to resolve.6 

 Leptospirosis Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Alcoholism

Alcoholism is a chronic disease that produces a strong urge to drink alcohol. Excessive abuse of alcohol can damage the liver. People who drink excessive amounts of alcohol on a daily basis are at great risk of developing alcoholic liver disease.

Liver disease including hepatitis and cirrhosis can cause jaundice, resulting in yellowing of the eyes.7 Treatment for liver disease caused by alcoholism includes stopping the drinking of alcohol.7

 Alcoholic Liver Disease

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is an infection of the pancreas. This condition causes the pancreas to swell and to become inflamed.8 Pancreatitis causes abdominal pain as well as jaundice of the eyes and skin. Treatment of pancreatitis involves hospitalization with specialized care.9

 An Overview of Pancreatitis

Hemolytic Anemia

Hemolytic anemia is a blood condition that develops when the body breaks down red blood cells too quickly, leading to severe anemia. Bilirubin levels increase when red blood cells break down too quickly, causing the whites of the eyes to appear yellow.10

Treating hemolytic anemia involves determining the cause of depleting red blood cells within the body.

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