Continuity or intractable hiccups are mainly divided into craniocerebral and extracranial causes.
(1) neck disease: simple goiter, aneurysm, tracheal cyst, tracheal diverticulum, arteriovenous tumor.
(2) chest disease: pleurisy, mediastinal compression, mediastinal inflammation, pericarditis, pneumonia, lung abscess, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, esophagitis, etc.
(3) aortic aneurysm, transverse bulging, sputum.
(4) Intra-abdominal causes: lower esophageal cancer, hiatal hernia, esophageal varices, gastric bleeding, gastric cancer, perforation of gastric or duodenal ulcer, liver cancer, liver abscess, gallbladder cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, peritonitis, Underarm abscess, flatulence, ascites.
(5) Metabolic disorders: hypocalcemia, uremia, hepatic encephalopathy, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic hyperosmolar coma, sepsis, and the like.
(6) iatrogenicity: after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, abdominal and mediastinal surgery, laparoscopy or postoperative.
2. Brain causes
(1) cervical and craniocerebral trauma: 3-5 cervical spinal cord injury above the central nervous system: high cervical spine fracture, epidural hematoma.
(2) Tumor: high cervical tumor, posterior fossa tumor including cerebellum, medulla oblongata and ventricle (fourth ventricle) tumor compression or intracranial hypertension.
(3) cerebrovascular disease: medullary cavernous hemangioma, medullary hemorrhage, etc. due to cerebral vascular pressure or cerebral thrombosis or cerebral arteriosclerosis caused by ischemia and hypoxia caused by intracranial hypertension caused by secondary refractory hiccups.
(4) infection and other factors: tuberculous meningitis, brain abscess and herpes zoster secondary to encephalomyelitis infection or induced by hiccups due to drunkenness, general anesthesia or allergic reactions.
(1) After the inhalation breath holding method: the patient quickly breathes the breath after deep inhalation, and then slowly exhale. This method can be used repeatedly, and is