A certain degree of reflux is physiological. Physiological reflux often occurs after meals and lasts for a short time without symptoms, and rarely occurs during sleep.
Pathological reflux is associated with symptoms or mucosal lesions, often occurring at night.
GERD is a disease caused by gastric reflux that causes annoying symptoms and/or complications.
According to the appearance of esophageal mucosa shown by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, GERD can be divided into:
Erosive esophagitis-erosive esophagitis is characterized by endoscopic lesions of the distal esophageal mucosa with or without annoying GERD symptoms.
Non-erosive reflux disease-non-erosive reflux disease or endoscopic negative reflux disease, characterized by troublesome GERD symptoms, but no damage to esophageal mucosa.
Typical symptoms of GERD include heartburn (heartburn) and reflux.
Heart burn is usually described as a burning sensation behind the sternum, most commonly after meals.
Reflux is defined as the sensation of gastric contents flowing into the mouth or hypopharynx . Patients usually reflux with a small amount of acid in undigested food.
Other symptoms of GERD include dysphagia, chest pain, acid reflux, hysteria, swallowing pain, extraesophageal symptoms (such as chronic cough, hoarseness, wheezing), and less likely nausea.
Dysphagia is often caused by reflux esophagitis in the case of long-term heartburn, but it may also indicate the presence of esophageal stricture. Swallowing pain is an uncommon symptom of GERD, and if present, it usually indicates the presence of esophageal ulcer.
GERD-related chest pain is similar to angina pectoris, usually described as crushing pain or burning pain, located behind the sternum and radiated to the back, neck, jaw or arm. The pain lasts from minutes to hours, and can be relieved by itself or by the use of antacid. Chest pain often occurs after meals and can wake patients up from sleep, and emotional stress may aggravate chest pain. Patients with chest pain due to reflux can also hav