Hemoglobin, white blood cell count and classification, platelets are generally normal, only 11% of patients with hemoglobin L, which is related to myeloma involving bone marrow, renal insufficiency or gastrointestinal blood loss. About 9% of patients have platelet counts >500×109/L. The spleen function is caused by the precipitation of amyloid.
2. Biochemical examination
Some patients have an increase in alkaline phosphatase, which is considered to be caused by congestive heart failure, in addition to considering liver involvement. Transaminase bilirubin is in the normal range, and some patients may see an increase. If there is a significant increase, it often indicates that the disease has reached the advanced stage. Half of those with nephrotic syndrome have elevated cholesterol and some have elevated triglycerides. In addition, 5% of patients had X-factor defects, but rarely caused bleeding. In some patients, serum creatinine was ≥180 μmol/L, and half of the patients were completely normal.
3. Serum protein
About half of patients with primary amyloidosis can see monoclonal protein in protein electrophoresis. If further electrophoresis or immunofixation is used, the positive rate can reach 72%. The median M protein 14g / L (M protein) a few > 30g / L, about one-four patients with aggreglobinemia. K/λ is 1:2.3.
4. Urine protein
Some patients have urinary protein. A small number of patients showed concentrated albumin peaks in concentrated urine. Some patients have M protein in urine by immunoelectrophoresis or immunofixation. The 24-hour urinary light chain discharge was 0.01-6.6 g, with an average of 0.4 g, and some patients >3 g/24 h. In conclusion, in patients diagnosed with primary amyloidosis, most of the M protein was found in serum or urine.
5. some patient show increased ESR.
there tests are not specficic. Pathological results are the most direct diagnostic basis.