Sciatic neuralgia is a syndrome characterized by pain in the sciatic nerve pathway and distribution area. Most cases of sciatica are secondary to the local and peripheral structure of the sciatic nerve lesions on the sciatic nerve stimulation, compression and damage, known as secondary sciatica; a small number of primary, namely, sciatitis. Common diseases: hip, thigh, leg and foot.
(1) Pain is mainly confined to the distribution of sciatic nerve, the posterior thigh, the posterolateral leg and the foot. Patients with severe pain can assume a unique posture; lumbar flexion, knee flexion, toe landing. If the lesion is located in the nerve root, the pain increases with the increase of intraspinal pressure (cough, exertion).
(2) The degree of muscle weakness varies greatly depending on the etiology, location of lesion and degree of damage. It may be that all or part of the muscles innervated by the sciatic nerve are weak or paralyzed.
(3) Sciatic nerve trunk tenderness may or may not be present at the sciatic notch.
(4) Sciatic nerve traction sign, Lasegue sign and its allelic sign are positive. The existence of this sign is often parallel to the severity of pain. Local anesthesia of sciatic nerve root or nerve trunk can disappear.
(5) Achilles tendon reflex decreased or disappeared, and knee reflex increased due to stimulation.
(6) There may be a decrease or disappearance of sensations in the sciatic nerve innervation area, including a decrease in vibration sensation of the lateral malleolus, or a very mild sensory disturbance.