The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) defines CKD as a structural or functional abnormality of the kidney that lasts for more than three months and has an impact on health. Such abnormalities may include one or more indicators of renal injury [e.g., albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR)>30 mg/g, urinary sediment abnormalities, electrolyte abnormalities and other abnormalities caused by tubular diseases, histological abnormalities, structural abnormalities detected by imaging or history of renal transplantation], or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60. ML/(min.1.73 m2) (GFR stage is 3a-5).
The Working Group on CKD Guidelines decided to define CKD as having a GFR of less than 60 mL/(min.1.73 m2) or an indicator of kidney injury. CKD was defined with GFR less than 60 mL/(min.1.73 m2) and the prevalence rate was 4.7% (or 8.3 million people).
Prevalence of CKD in other countries - except the United States, has been reported in other countries, although comparisons between countries are difficult due to differences in research design, different definitions of CKD used, lack of standardization in laboratory calibration, and lack of awareness of important factors, such as age and coexisting diseases. CKD, most commonly defined as elevated serum creatinine or decreased eGFR or moderate increase in albuminuria, has a reported prevalence of about 1% - 30%.
A population-based study in Korea showed that the prevalence of moderate elevation of albuminuria was 2.8% in people with normal blood pressure and blood sugar, and 10% and 16% in patients with hypertension and diabetes, respectively. The overall prevalence of CKD was 8.2% in another population study of Korean adults aged 20 or older.
In Icelandic adults, the prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/(min.1.73 m2) and proteinuria was 5% and 2% in males and 12% and 1% in females, respectively.
In a report from Taiwan, China, the prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/(min.1.73 m2) was 7%.
In one study, the overall prevalence of