What Is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone-related problem that women suffer. Most women patients have a number of small cysts in the ovaries. PCOS occurs in 5% to 10% of women and is the most common cause of infertility in women. PCOS symptoms may begin with menstrual irregularities during puberty. Or, a woman may not know she has PCOS until later in life when symptoms and/or infertility occur. We still don't know what causes PCOS yet. It is likely to result from both genetic and environmental factors. Women with PCOS usually have a mother or sister with the condition. Symptoms of the disease include:
  • elevated androgen levels,
  • excess hair growth on the body,
  • male-pattern hair loss,
  • obesity and weight gain,
  • elevated insulin levels and insulin resistance,
  • oily skin,
  • dandruff,
  • infertility,
  • skin discolorations,
  • high cholesterol levels,
  • elevated blood pressure,
  • multiple small cysts in the ovaries.
Keywords: polycystic fibrosis ovaries, polycystic fibrosis syndrome.
How is this treated and can it cause a complete change in mental and physical attitudes
It could change your body habitus to some extent. The treatments are listed as follows:
PCOS treatment focuses on managing your individual concerns, such as infertility, hirsutism, acne or obesity. Specific treatment might involve lifestyle changes or medication.
Lifestyle changes
Your doctor may recommend weight loss through a low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise activities. Even a modest reduction in your weight — for example, losing 5 percent of your body weight — might improve your condition. Losing weight may also increase the effectiveness of medications your doctor recommends for PCOS, and can help with infertility.
To regulate your menstrual cycle, your doctor might recommend:
Combination birth control pills. Pills that contain estrogen and progestin decrease androgen production and regulate estrogen. Regulating your hormones can lower your risk of endometrial cancer and correct abnormal bleeding, excess hair growth and acne. Instead of pills, you might use a skin patch or vaginal ring that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin.
Progestin therapy. Taking progestin for 10 to 14 days every one to two months can regulate your periods and protect against endometrial cancer. Progestin therapy doesn't improve androgen levels and won't prevent pregnancy. The progestin-only minipill or progestin-containing intrauterine device is a better choice if you also wish to avoid pregnancy.
To help you ovulate, your doctor might recommend:
Clomiphene (Clomid). This oral anti-estrogen medication is taken during the first part of your menstrual cycle.
Letrozole (Femara). This breast cancer treatment can work to stimulate the ovaries.
Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet, others). This oral medication for type 2 diabetes improves insulin resistance and lowers insulin levels. If you don't become pregnant using clomiphene, your doctor might recommend adding metformin. If you have prediabetes, metformin can also slow the progression to type 2 diabetes and help with weight loss.
Gonadotropins. These hormone medications are given by injection.
To reduce excessive hair growth, your doctor might recommend:
Birth control pills. These pills decrease androgen production that can cause excessive hair growth.
Spironolactone (Aldactone). This medication blocks the effects of androgen on the skin. Spironolactone can cause birth defect, so effective contraception is required while taking this medication. It isn't recommended if you're pregnant or planning to become pregnant.
Eflornithine (Vaniqa). This cream can slow facial hair growth in women.
Electrolysis. A tiny needle is inserted into each hair follicle. The needle emits a pulse of electric current to damage and eventually destroy the follicle. You might need multiple treatments.