To diagnose Ewing sarcoma, your doctor usually will provide an X-ray
to show a suspicious area. Then the doctor recommends one or more additional imaging tests
to evaluate the area, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and bone scan.
may also be used and your doctor may remove a sample of tissue (biopsy) from the tumor for lab testing which can show whether the tissue is cancerous and, if so, what type of cancer.
Types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose Ewing sarcoma include:
- Needle biopsy in which the doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin and guides it into the tumor to remove small pieces of tissue from the tumor.
- Surgical biopsy in which the doctor makes an incision through the skin and removes either the entire tumor (excisional biopsy) or a portion of the tumor (incisional biopsy).
Advanced treatments for Ewing sarcoma include:
- Chemotherapy. Doctors recommend chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill cancer cells, before surgery to shrink Ewing sarcoma tumors and make them easier to remove.
- Surgery. Surgery for Ewing sarcoma may involve removing a small portion of bone or removing an entire limb. The surgeons perform operations to maintain function and minimize disability.
- Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain or used instead of surgery if the sarcoma is located in a part of the body where surgery is not possible or would result in unacceptable functional outcomes. It can also be used to relieve pain.