What is the definition of myocardial infarction?
Myocardial infarction (MI)
means the tissue death of the heart muscle, it's a type of acute coronary syndrome
. The phrase "heart attack" is often used non-specifically to refer to a myocardial infarction and to sudden cardiac death.
MI is different from, but can cause cardiac arrest
, where the heart is not contracting at all or so poorly that all vital organs cease to function, thus causing death. It is also distinct from heart failure
, in which the pumping function is impaired.
MI occurs mostly after middle age
and can trigger severe and long-lasting symptoms like anterior chest pain, palpitations, wheezing, weak pulse, and decreased blood pressure, and taking nitroglycerin
can cause serious consequences. Treatment should be performed immediately
after the onset of this illness.
What causes myocardial infarction?
Any physical or mental factors that increase myocardial oxygen consumption or induce coronary spasm may trigger acute myocardial infarction in patients with coronary heart disease. The common causes
are as follows:
physical activity, or continuous stress and fatigue can significantly increase the burden on the heart, and the myocardial oxygen demand. The coronary artery of patients with coronary heart disease can't fully expand if experiencing defatigation, thus causing short-term blood deficiency
, and in severe cases, causing acute myocardial infarction.
Intense emotional changes
such as agitation, nervousness, and anger can induce myocardial infarction.
After eating a large amount of food containing high fat and high calorie
, an increase in blood lipid concentration, an increase in blood viscosity, and an increase in platelet aggregation may occur. thus causing acute myocardial infarction.
Sudden cold stimulation may induce acute myocardial infarction, which is the reason for the high incidence of acute myocardial infarction in winter and spring
Forceful breath holding
during constipation can lead to myocardial infarction.
What are the symptoms of myocardial infarction?
The common symptoms
of myocardial infarction are as follows:
The sites and the nature of the pain are the same as angina pectoris
, often occur during rest or sleeping, the duration of the extreme pains can be as long as several hours or days
. Having rest or taking nitroglycerin tablets can not even alleviate them, and patients are often irritable, sweaty, fearful, and feeling of sudden death
The body temperature is generally around 38 ° C, rarely exceeding 39 ° C
. It may last for about a week
of patients may experience nausea, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain
in the early stages
of the disease.
of arrhythmia occur more frequently within 1-2 weeks after onset
Hypotension and Shock:
During the pain, blood pressure will drop, and it will continue to rise after several weeks, but often can't be restored to the previous level. If the pain is relieved and the systolic blood pressure is lower than 80mmHg
, the patient will present symptoms like irritability, paleness, wet skin, and even fainting
, all of which are signs of shock.
It is mainly the acute left heart failure,
which can occur within the first few days
of onset or during the period of pain and shock. The incidence rate is about 20%-48%
, which is caused by a significant decrease in cardiac contractility after infarction.
What are the types of myocardial infarction?
Generally, myocardial infarction can be divided into ST elevation MI (STEMI)
and non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI)
. STEMIs make up about 25%-40%
of myocardial infarctions.
Specifically, myocardial infarction can also be divided into the following types:
- Spontaneous MI related to plaque erosion or rupture.
- MI related to ischemia.
- Associated with coronary angioplasty or stents.
- Associated with CABG.
How to diagnose myocardial infarction?
Common diagnosis measures are as follows:
Cardiac biomarkers like troponins, CK-MB or myoglobin
can be used to determine the presence of cardiac muscle damage.
Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are a series of leads placed on a person's chest
that measure electrical activity associated with contraction of heart muscle.
Tests such as chest X-rays
can be used to explore and exclude alternate causes of a person's symptoms. Tests such as stress echocardiography
and myocardial perfusion imaging
a diagnosis. Echocardiography
, an ultrasound scan of the heart, is able to visualize abnormal motions
of the heart walls as they beat.
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