What is the definition of urticaria?
, also called hives
, is a localized edema reaction due to skin and mucosal small blood vessel dilation and increased permeability. It usually disappears within 2 to 24 hours
, but new rash can repeatedly occur. The course of urticaria can be delayed from several days to several months.
Acute and chronic urticaria
are two common types, but there are also several special types
of urticaria: Dermatographic urticaria/artificial urticaria; Delayed skin scratches; Delayed pressure urticaria; Cholinergic urticaria; Cold urticaria; Solar urticaria; Contact urticaria and so on.
What causes urticaria?
The causes for urticaria are very complicated, about 3/4 of the patients cannot determine
the exact causes, especially chronic urticaria. But the common causes
- Insect stings or bites
- Some plants, such as poison oak and poison ivy
- Physical stimulation, such as cold, heat, exercise, sun exposure, pressure, etc.
- Certain foods, such as peanuts, eggs, nuts, shellfish, etc.
- Blood transfusions
- Bacterial infections, such as strep throat or urinary tract infections.
- Viral infections, such as common cold, infectious mononucleosis and hepatitis.
- Pet dander
- Certain medications, such as antibiotics, aspirin and ibuprofen
What are the symptoms of urticaria?
Symptoms of urticaria can last anywhere from minutes to months-or even years. Though they may resemble bug bites, urticaria is different in several ways.
In mild cases
of urticaria, symptoms
may include nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, etc.
In severe cases
of urticaria, symptoms
may include chest tightness, pale complexion, accelerated heart rate, weak pulse, decreased blood pressure, shortness of breath, etc.
What are the treatments of urticaria?
Treatments for urticaria vary from cause to cause, specific treatment measures are as follows:
- Cause removal: For each patient, it is necessary to find the underlying causes of the attack and to avoid them. If the causes can be traced back to infections, we should actively treat infected lesions; Medications-induced patients should stop allergic drugs; Foods-induced patients should find the allergic foods and stop eating them anymore.
- Avoid predisposing factors: Patients of cold urticaria should pay attention to keeping warm; patients of cholinergic urticaria should reduce exercises, sweating and mood swings; patients of contact urticaria should decrease their opportunities of being contacted.
The common medications used to treat urticaria are as follows:
Antihistamines usually include H1 antagonists, like hydroxyzine (Vistaril), and H2 antagonists, like cimetidine (Tagamet).
Drugs that inhibit the degranulation of mast cells and reduce the release of histamine
These drugs usually include ketotifen, sodium cromoglycate, tranilast and the like.
Commonly used glucocorticoids are as follows: prednisone, triamcinolone, dexamethasone, debaosong, etc. In case of emergency, intravenous infusion
of hydrocortisone, dexamethasone or methylprednisolone is also used.
Cyclosporine has a better effect, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, immunoglobulin, and tripterygium can be also be tested.
Keywords: urticaria symptoms; treatment urticaria; urticaria treatment; urticarial; urticaria rash; urticarial rash; urticaria hives; urticaria cause treatment; urticaria causes treatment; urticaria causes symptoms; urticaria symptoms causes; urticaria causas y tratamiento; cause urticaria; causes urticaria; urticaria causes; define urticaria; urticaria; que es la urticaria; urticaria definition; urticaria medical definition; urticaria_; urticaria__; signs urticaria; que causa la urticaria